Due to recent events on our campus at UConn, this question has been asked with increasing frequency. "Title IX" refers to Title IX o f the Education Amendments of 1972. The act states in most relevant part:
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance...
People seem to be most familiar with the impact of Title IX on sports. As is exhibited in the video below.
There are a number of good resources available on the web, for example:
Title IX info
US Dept. of Education
US Dept. of Justice